An inheritance tax law in North Carolina could not be validly applied to properties that form a Massachusetts trust fund established at the will of a Massachusetts-based corporation that grants appointing power to a North Carolina resident who has exercised that power through a will written in North Carolina; The levying by a State of tax on property outside its jurisdiction was contrary to due process guarantees. Pennsylvania law provided in part that “the following subjects and property shall be valued and valued and subject to tax” and that taxes “shall be declared as the first lien on such property.” The effect of an ad valorem property tax is to increase the valuation of a manufacturer`s land and buildings by the value of machinery leased to him by the United States, and thus constitutes a tax on U.S. property and violates the Constitution. Washington State and Washington County property taxes cannot be levied on the property of a corporation that, although established under Washington Law, was a federal instrument created and operated by the United States as an instrument of war. An Oklahoma law that prohibited foreign companies from invoking the diversity of federal courts` citizenship jurisdiction under threat of losing their license to do business in that state imposed an unconstitutional condition. The trade clause prohibits the application of the Illinois User Tax Act to a seller whose sole connection to the state`s customers is through a common carrier or by mail. The imposition of a California ad valorem property tax on freight containers parked, registered and subject to property tax in Japan results in multiple taxation of foreign trade instruments and violates the trade clause. A Connecticut law that criminalizes anyone using a drug or item to prevent conception is an unconstitutional violation of the privacy of married couples. The Texas Constitution and the City`s bylaws and Charter, which limit the right to vote in elections to issue city bonds to people who registered property for tax in the district during the election year, violate the equality clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. An Arizona law that required companies to hire five or more workers to reserve 80 percent of job opportunities for U.S. citizens denied foreigners the same protection of the laws. An Alabama law authorizing the repurchase of mortgage property within two years of the sale under an attachment order by bona fide creditors of the mortgage debtor could not be applied to mortgage sales performed prior to issuance without unconstitutional interference with the obligation under the contracts under Section I, § 10. The state legislature cannot interfere with Congress` disposition of public space and, therefore, a statute of limitations in Missouri that did not apply to the United States could not be applied in such a way that ownership was granted to an opposing owner to a U.S.
beneficiary, regardless of whether the adverse possession preceded the federal transfer. A Nebraska statute, as interpreted, that authorized the imposition of an additional $100 attorneys` fee on the carrier in favour of the plaintiff based on the service provided, the time and work performed, and the recovery provided by the plaintiff`s counsel in opposition to the appeal, which gave the carrier a significant reduction in excessive judgment, was inappropriate in that it prevented the carrier from defending its rights on appeal and was therefore contrary to due process. A federal court decision that finds that a Minnesota law that approves pre-pregnancy family planning grants to hospitals and health care organizations but prohibits such subsidies to other nonprofits when performing abortions violates the equality clause is summarily upheld. Louisiana`s Unlawful Death Act, which creates a right of action over a surviving child or surviving children as interpreted to mean only legitimate children or children, denies illegitimate children the same protection under the laws. A provision from the California Department of Agriculture provided that the sale and supply of milk “below the minimum wholesale price, retail prices that are effective in a marketing area” is an unfair practice that warrants withdrawal of the license or prosecution. Sales and deliveries of milk to the War Department in a federal enclave within a state through which the United States has acquired exclusive jurisdiction are not subject to the regulation of a state milk stabilization law. Arizona`s constitutional and legal provisions denying public employment to foreigners violate the equality clause. A Nebraska law that required the minimum weight of loaves to be made and sold, and which, to prevent peeling of the smallest for larger sizes, set a maximum for each class and allowed a “tolerance” of only two ounces per pound above the minimum, was deemed inappropriate. to be useless in order to protect buyers from the imposition of fraud by short weights, thus depriving bakers and bread sellers of their freedom without due process. As important as these principles are to the proper functioning of our federal law enforcement system, the success of that system must ultimately depend on the character, integrity, sensitivity and competence of the men and women chosen to represent the public interest in the federal criminal justice process. With their help, these principles have been developed and their efforts make it possible to achieve the objectives of these principles.
Indiana`s pre-trial engagement process for allegedly incompetent defendants, which provides softer standards of duty than trial for those not charged with a crime, and stricter standards for release, violates both due process and equal protection. Georgia`s Illegal Assembly Law, which called for individuals to be convicted of violating the peace if they refused to disperse on police orders, was void because of the vagueness and violated due process because it did not give blacks adequate warning that playing peaceful basketball in a city park would prosecute them for violating the law. A provision in the California Welfare and Institutions Code that limits new residents to the level of benefits they would have received in the state of their previous residence during the first year they live in California shortens the right to travel in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment. At first, proponents of this idea seemed optimistic about its chances. In early June, Charles Pinckney and James Madison actually decided to expand the “negative” Congress to get any state legislation that Congress deemed “inappropriate.” However, this motion was defeated. The following month, beyond Madison`s objections, the convention also rejected the narrower version of power. Instead of the proposed “negative” Congress, the Convention approved a precursor to the supremacy clause. This clause underwent various changes in the following months, but the final version states: West Virginia law, which prohibited the transportation of oil by pipeline without paying a 2¢ tax for each barrel of oil transported, was an invalid burden on interstate trade applied to the volume of oil produced by the company, but by moving from West Virginia to non-state destinations. A Congressional District Act in Missouri is unconstitutional because population deviations from the exact mathematical equality between counties were not inevitable. A New York law requiring only U.S. citizens to hold permanent positions in the competing public service violates the equal protection clause. A contractual obligation was compromised when, after issuing a charter to a bridge company containing the assurance that the construction of other bridges within a two-mile radius of that bridge would not be permitted, the New York Legislature subsequently commissioned a second company to build a bridge a few poles from the first.
An Alabama law that changed the boundaries of the city of Tuskegee so that all but four of its 400 African-American voters were eliminated without eliminating one white voter violated the Fifteenth Amendment. A Massachusetts law that allows any church to block the issuance of a liquor license to an institution within 500 feet of the church violates the settlement clause by delegating government decision-making to a church. An Illinois law requiring all scheduled passenger trains to stop at county headquarters for passenger reception and unloading was an invalid burden on interstate commerce when applied to an express train that served only passengers between New York and St. Louis. A Michigan law that taxed the sale of imported alcohol in its original packaging held invalid interstate trade regulations. .